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這幅是著名的天主聖三聖像。主題是描繪三位一體的天主,化身成為天使,探訪亞巴郎的情況。

一體三位的天主無分大小,圍坐在餐桌上,形成一個等邊三角形。 從三個人的姿勢可以看到,他們是彼此相向的,這象徵著他們是一個緊密的團體。

三位的面容完全一樣,只是衣飾不同,表達了三位的本體相同,但因著在在救恩史上有不同的流露,成為我們認識的三位一體的天主,就是聖父、聖子、聖神。

 

可以試猜猜看,到底那一位是父、子、及神!

 

Type Tempera
Dimensions 142 cm × 114 cm (56 in × 45 in)
Location Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow

 

Andrei Rublev (ca. 1370 - 1430)
The Trinity. 1420s

 

 

天主聖三的信仰可以說是基督宗教信仰中最為核心的信理。我們相信只有一個天主,但祂有三位。聖父是整個天主,聖子是整個天主,聖神也是整個天主。但父、子和聖神之間有 著實際的差別。父不是子,子不是父,聖神也不是父或子。祂們之間的差別在於彼此之間的內在關係,父是生者,子是被生者,聖神是被發者。

 畫像的背景是『創18章』。亞巴郎迎接天主的三位使者。這三位使者為他帶來了喜訊。為了表達這三位使者都來自天上, 畫家在祂們的身上加添了翅膀。這章節是舊約中有關天主聖三信仰最為重要的預示。

 若我們仔細欣賞畫像,可以發覺三位使者的頭部被放在同一的圓週上,象徵聖三的一致和永遠。此外,我們可以看到一個等邊三角形。中間的人上半身兩旁 的線條,配合三角形的兩邊。三角形下面一條線,就是桌子上面的一條線,旁邊兩人坐在三角形基座的兩個角上。三角形是天主聖三一個古老的象徵。聖三共同融合在完滿而共融的一體之內。

 畫像中的三位使者有著相似的形態,各有翅膀和手持權杖,表示祂們擁有同一的天主性。三位的相貌都很年青,表示三位之間,無大無小,無先無後。三位的衣服都有藍色的部份,顯示祂們都來自天上。但祂們其他衣服的顏色有著顯著的不同,顯示祂們之間又有著實際的分別。

 左邊的一位是聖父,祂坐席的位置、坐姿和金紅色的外袍都在強調祂是聖三內的源頭。祂的坐姿較直,祂的頭是向著另外的兩位。祂的手勢也向右,呈祝福 和派遣狀。中間的一位是聖子,祂紅色的衣服象徵著祂在十字架上的犧牲。祂的身和頭,連同身後的樹都傾向著左邊,表示對父的服從。但祂的手卻同時指向右邊, 表示對右邊一位的派遣。聖子身後的是「生命樹」(創2:9), 耶穌的死亡為我們帶來了新的生命。最右的一位是聖神,祂的頭和身,連同身後的山丘都傾向著左邊,表示對父的服從。祂的外衣是綠色的,表示聖神充滿著天地, 祂的德能,養育聖化萬有。聖神就是護衛者。

我們可以看到,聖三的內在關係,就是愛、犧牲和服從。畫像中的三位,好像正在開會,討論救世的大業。桌子上的聖爵,象徵聖三分享同一的生命,也象徵 耶穌在十字架上的祭獻。聖爵在這幅聖像畫中有著重要的位置,除了桌子上的聖爵外,左右兩位使者的腿和膝部合起來也呈聖爵的形狀。最後,在桌子前還有另外 一個聖爵,它是預留給我們的。它邀請我們參與聖子的祭獻,好能分享聖三永恆而又共融的生命。

http://www.theology.org.hk/icon/icon_guide.asp

 

 

 

He uses the biblical background but relates it to the three figures. The angel on the left is coordinated with the house, the one in the middle with a tree and the one on the right with a rock. These relationships become symbolic.

 

Over the head of the Father who is on the left is the house of the Father. It is the goal of our journey. It is the beginning and end of our lives. Its roof is golden. Its door is always open for the traveler. It has a tower, and its window is always open so that the Father can incessantly scan the roads for a glimpse of a returning prodigal.

 

He is vested in a blue undergarment which depicts his divine celestial nature. His fatherly authority is seen in his entire appearance. His head is not bowed and he is looking at the other two angels. His whole demeanor - the expression on his face, the placement of his hands, the way he is sitting - all speaks of his fatherly dignity.

 

Behind the center angle who symbolizes christ is a great tree that spreads its shade in heat of the day. It is no ordinary tree. It stands above the Son in the picture, and stands above the altar-table where the lamb lies within the chalice. Because of the sacrifice this tree grows. The tree of death has been transformed into a tree of life for us.

The Son has the deepest colors; a thick heavy garment of the reddish-brown of blood earth and a cloak of the blue of heaven. In his person he unites heaven and earth, the two natures are present in him, and over his right shoulder (the Government shall be upon his shoulder) there is a band of gold shot through the earthly garment, as his divinity suffuses and transfigures his earthly being. He is inclined towards the first angel, as though deep in conversation.

 

The angel on the right symbolizes the Holy Spirit. His green mantle of the Spirit, scintillating with light, is another of Rublev’s achievements. Green belongs to the Spirit because the Spirit is the source of life. On the Feast of Pentecost, Eastern Orthodox churches are decorated with greenery, boughs and branches, and worshippers will wear green clothing. The Orthodox prayer to the Holy Spirit begins, "O Heavenly King, Comforter, the Spirit of Truth, Who art everywhere present and fillest all things, Treasury of blessings and Giver of Life…"

 

This sense of the Spirit as the source of life, everywhere present, filling all things, contributes to one of the distinct feaatures of Orthodox theology. That is, it is intimately bound up with daily life. There is no such thing as theology which is purely intellectual. If theology doesn't change you, if it doesn’t flood you with light, it’s not worth your time

 

This icon is appreciated for its simplicity. Saint Andrew was successful at advancing the iconographic tradition of the Church adding depth and bringing greater clarity to a doctrine that is forever mystically clothed.

 

Henry Nouwen, the great spiritual writer from Notre Dame, notes:

“Andrei Rublev painted this icon not only to share the fruits of his own meditation on the mystery of the Holy Trinity but also to offer his fellow monks a way to keep their hearts centered on God while living in the midst of political unrest. The more we look at this holy image with the eyes of faith, the more we come to realize that is painted not as a lovely decoration for a convent church, nor as a helpful explanation of a difficult doctrine, but as a holy place to enter and stay within. As we place ourselves in front of the icon in prayer, we come to experience a gentle invitation to participate in an intimate table conversation that is taking place between the three divine angels and to join them at the table. The movement from the Father toward the Son and the movement of both Son and Spirit toward the Father become a movement in which the one who prays is lifted up and held secure. Through the contemplation of this icon we come to see with our own inner eyes that all the engagements in this world can bear fruit only when they take place within the divine circle. We can be involved in struggles for justice and actions for peace. We can be part of the ambiguities of family and community life. We can study, teach, write, and hold a regular job. We can do all of this without ever having to leave the house of love… Rublev's icon gives us a glimpse of the house of perfect love.”

 

Abraham and Sarah from Genesis 18:

"The Lord appeared to Abraham by the oaks of Mamre, as he sat at the entrance of his tent in the heat of the day. He looked up and saw three men/angels standing near him. When he saw them, he ran from the tent entrance to meet them and bowed down to the ground. He said, “My lord, if I find favor with you, do not pass by your servant. Let a little water be brought and wash your feet. Rest yourselves under the tree. Let me bring a little bread, that you may refresh yourselves and after that you may pass on—since you have come to your servant.” So they said, “Do as you have said.” And Abraham hastened into the tent to Sarah and said, Make ready quickly three measures of choice flour, knead it and make cakes.” Abraham ran to the herd and took a calf, tender and good, and gave it to the servant, who hastened to prepare it. Then he took curds and milk and the calf that he had prepared, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree while they ate."

http://www.stgeorgegreenville.org/OurFaith/Pentecost/Icon%20Trinity.html

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